Chapter_8 - Appendix B

Appendix C – Figure F-2

Appendix C -- Published Resource Materials

Bolles, R.N. The 1999 What Color Is Your Parachute: A Practical Manual for Job-Hunters and Career-Changers. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1998.

Brown, C.; McDaniel, R.; Couch, R.; and McClenahan, M. Vocational Evaluation Systems and Software: A Consumer's Guide. Menomonie, WI: University of Wisconsin-Stout, 1994.

Farley, R.C. Developing and Enhancing Interview Skills: A Supplemental Manual for the Interviewing Skills Training Workshop. Hot Springs, AR: Arkansas Research and Training Center on Vocational Rehabilitation, 1983.

Hinman, S.; Means, B.; Parkerson, S.; and Odendahl, B. Manual for the Job-Seeking Skills Assessment. Hot Springs, AR: Arkansas Research and Training Center on Vocational Rehabilitation, 1988.

Holland, J.L. Self-Directed Search (SDS) Form R, 4th ed. Tampa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. 1997.

Kapes, J.T.; Mastie, M.M.; and Whitfield, E.A. Counselor's Guide to Career Assessment Instruments, 3rd ed. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association, 1994.

Matrix Research Institute. (many publications) 6008 Wayne Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19144. Tel: (215) 438-8200; Fax: (215) 438-8337; TDD: (215) 438-1506; e-mail:; Web site:

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Assessing Client Needs Using the ASI: A Handbook for Program Administrators. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Power, P.W. A Guide to Vocational Assessment, 2nd ed. Austin, TX: PRO-ED, 1991.

U.S. Department of Labor. Manual for the General Aptitude Test Battery, Section III: Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.

U.S. Department of Labor. Guide for Occupational Exploration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

U.S. Department of Labor. Instructions for Administering and Using the Interest Check List. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

U.S. Department of Labor. Manual for the USES Interest Inventory. Minneapolis, MN: Intran Corporation, 1982.

Internet Sites

America's Career InfoNet:

America's Labor Market Information System:

Federal Transit Administration:

Housing and Urban Development:

Matrix Research Institute:

National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials:

National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee:

U.S. Department of Labor:

U.S. Department of Labor, Welfare-to-Work:

Welfare Information Network :

Welfare to Work Partnership:

Workforce Investment Act of 1998 information:


Open Options for Windows.

Order from Career Planning Specialists Software, Inc., 362 S. Harvey St., Plymouth, MI 48170. Voice: (313) 459-7348. Fax: (313) 459-9833.

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)

Prevention Works! Software.

Appendix D -- Addiction Severity Index

Appendix E -- State Employment Agencies


Alabama State Employment Service

649 Monroe St, Room 266

Montgomery, AL 36131

Phone: (334) 242-8003; Fax: (334) 242-8012

Web site:


Alaska Career Information System

Alaska Department of Education

801 West 10th Street, Suite 20

Juneau, AK 99801-1894

Phone: (907) 465-2980; Fax: (907) 465-2982

Web site:


Employment and Rehabilitation Services

Arizona Department of Economic Security

1831 W. Jefferson

Phoenix, AZ 85007

Phone: (602) 542-4941 or (602) 542-5216

Web site:


Arkansas Employment Security Department

#2 Capital Mall, Room 506

ESD Building

Little Rock, AR 72201

Phone: (501) 682-2121; Fax: (501) 682-2273

Web site:


The California State Job Training Coordinating Council

800 Capitol Mall, MIC 67

Sacramento, CA 95814

Phone: (916) 654-6836; Fax: (916) 654-8987

Web site:


Colorado Department of Labor and Employment

Attn: Public Relations

1515 Arapahoe Street, Tower 2, Suite 500

Denver, CO 80202-2117

Phone: (303) 620-4718

Web site:


Employment Training/Connecticut Works

Connecticut Department of Labor

200 Folly Brook Boulevard

Wethersfield, CT 06109

Phone: (888) 289-6757 [(888) CTWORKS]

Web site:


Delaware Department of Labor

Division of Employment and Training

First Floor4425 North Market StreetWilmington, DE 19806

Web site: /


Department of Employment Services

Training, Referral and Assessment Office

500 C Street, NW, Room 300Washington, DC 20001

Phone: (202) 724-2300

Web site:


Florida Department of Labor & Employment Security

Division of Vocational Rehabilitation - Bldg A

2002 Old Augustine Road

Tallahassee, FL 32399

Phone: (850) 488-6210 or (850) 488-4398 (general information)

Web site:


Georgia Department of Labor

Suite 642

148 International Boulevard N.E.

Atlanta, GA 30303-1751

Phone: (404) 656-3032

Web site:


Department of Labor and Industrial Relations Workforce Development Division

830 Punchbowl Street

Honolulu, HI 96813

Phone: (808) 586-8842; Fax: (808) 586-9099

Web site: or


Idaho Department of Labor

317 Main Street

Boise, ID 83735-0600

Phone: (208) 334-6252; Fax: (208) 334-6300

Web site:


Illinois Department of Employment Security

Field Operations

401 S. State Street, 7th North

Chicago, IL 60605

Phone: (312) 793-2713; in Springfield: (217) 785-5069

Web site:


Department of Workforce Development

10 N. Senate Avenue

Indianopolis, IN 46204

Phone: (317) 232-7670; Fax: (319) 233-4793

Web site:


Iowa Workforce Development

1000 East Grand Avenue

Des Moines, IA 50319-0209

Phone: (515) 281-5387, 800-JOB-IOWA

Web site:


Kansas Department of Human Resources

1430 SW Topeka Boulevard

Topeka, KS 66612-1897

Phone: (785) 296-1715; Fax: (785) 296-1984

Web site:


Workforce Development Cabinet

Department for Employment Services

275 East Main StreetFrankfort, KY 40621Phone: (502) 564-5331

Web site:


Louisiana Department of Labor

735 St. Charles Avenue

New Orleans, LA 70130-3713

Phone: (504) 568-7111; Fax: (504) 568-7195

Web site:


Department of Labor

Job Service

Bureau of Employment Services

55 State House Station

Augusta, ME 04333-0055

Phone: (207) 624-6390; Fax: (207) 624-6499

Web site: /


Maryland Job Service

Division of Employment and Training

Phone: (800) 765-8692

Web site: /


Massachusetts Division of Employment and Training

19 Staniford Street

Boston, MA 02114

Phone: (617) 727-6560

Web site:


Michigan Department of Career Development

[formerly Michigan Jobs Commission]

201 N. Washington Square

Victor Office Center, 4th Floor

Lansing, MI 48913

Phone: (517) 373-9808

Web site:



Minnesota Department of Economic Security

390 N. Robert Street

St. Paul, MN 55101

Phone: (888) 438-5627

Web site:


Mississippi Employment Security Commission

P.O. Box 1699

Jackson, MS 39215-1699

Phone: (601) 354-8711; Fax: (601) 961-7405

Web site:


Workforce Development Transition Team

P.O. Box 1928

Jefferson City, MO 65102-1928

Phone: (573) 751-7039; Fax: (573) 751-0147

Web site:


Montana Department of Labor and Industry

Job Service Division

Web site:


Nebraska Department of Labor

550 South 16th Street

Lincoln, NE 68509-4600

Phone: (402) 471-2600; Fax: (402) 471-9867

Web site:


Nevada Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation

Information Development and Processing Division

Research & Analysis Bureau

500 E. Third Street

Carson City, NV 89713

Phone: (702) 687-4550

Web site:


New Hampshire Employment Security

Web site:


New Jersey State Employment & Training Commission

P.O. Box 940

Trenton, NJ 08625-0940

Web site:


New Mexico Department of Labor

Employment Security Division

401 Broadway NE

Albuquerque, NM 87102

Web site:


Workforce Development and Training

New York State Department of Labor

State Campus, Building 12

Albany, NY 12240

Phone: (518) 457-0380; Fax: (518) 457-9526

Web site:


North Carolina Division of Employment & Training

441 N. Harrington Street

Raleigh, NC 27603

Phone: (919) 733-6383

Web site:


Job Service North Dakota

P.O. Box 5507

Bismarck, ND 58506-5507

Phone: (800) 732-9787 or (701) 328-2868;

Fax: (701) 328-4193

Web site:


Ohio Bureau of Employment Services

145 S. Front Street

Columbus, OH 43215

Web site:



Oklahoma Employment Security Commission

Will Rogers Office Building

2401 North Lincoln Blvd.

P. O. Box 52003

Oklahoma City, OK 73152-2003

Phone: (405) 557-0200

Web site: /


Oregon Employment Department

875 Union Street, N.E.

Salem, OR 97311

Web site:


Career Development Marketplace Unit

c/o Department of Labor and Industry

412 Labor and Industry Building

7th & Forster Streets

Harrisburg, PA 17120

Web site:


Rhode Island Department of Labor and Training

101 Friendship Street

Providence, RI 02903

Phone: (401) 222-3625

Web site:


South Carolina Employment Security Commission

1550 Gadsden Street

Columbia, SC 29202

Web site:


South Dakota Department of Labor

700 Governors Drive

Pierre, SD 57501-2291

Phone: (605) 773-3101; Fax: (605) 773-4211

Web site:


Tennessee Department of Employment Security

Davy Crockett Tower - 11th Floor

500 James Robertson Parkway

Nashville, TN 37245-1200

Phone: (615) 741-213

Web site:


Texas Workforce Commission

101 E. 15th Street

Austin, TX 78778-8001

Web site:


Utah Department of Workforce Services

P.O. Box 45249

Salt Lake City, UT 84145-0249

Phone: (801) 526-WORK (9675);

Fax: (801) 536-7420

Web site:


Vermont Department of Employment and Training

5 Green Mountain Drive

P.O. Box 488

Montpelier, VT 05601-0488

Phone: (802) 828-4000; Fax: (802) 828-4022

Web site:


Virginia Employment Commission

5520 Cherokee Avenue, Suite 100

Alexandria, VA 22312- 2319

Phone: (703) 813-1300; Fax: (703) 813-1380

Web site:


Washington State Employment Security Department

Commissioner's Office

212 Maple Park Drive

P.O. Box 9046

Olympia, WA 98507-9046

Phone: (360) 902-9301; Fax: (360) 902-9383

Web site:


West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs

112 California Avenue

Charleston, WV 25305-0112

Phone: (304) 558-2630

Web site:


Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development

201 E. Washington Avenue

P.O. Box 7946

Madison, WI 53707-7946

Web site:


Wyoming Department of Employment

122 West 25th Street

Cheyenne, WY 82002

Phone: (307) 777-7672

Web site:

Appendix F -- Federal Funding Sources

The information about Federal and State funding sources in Figures F-1 and F-2 is intended to illustrate the range of potential Federal funding sources available and should not be regarded as comprehensive. Although every effort was made to ensure that the information was as up-to-date as possible, some information may no longer be current. The information is arranged in the same order as it was presented in the section "Federal and State Funding Sources" in Chapter 6.

Each of the funding sources listed in Figure F-1 has its own eligibility and reporting requirements and funding cycle. Some programs are competitive, whereas others award funding by formula. Although substance abuse treatment programs may not be able to compete directly for some of these funds, they may be able to subcontract with a funded agency. They can also have a crucial advocacy role in deciding funding priorities.

The following acronyms are used in Figure F-1.

  • CHIP = Child Health Insurance Plan
  • DHHS = Department of Health and Human Services
  • DOE = Department of Education
  • DOJ = Department of Justice
  • DOL = Department of Labor
  • DOT = Department of Transportation
  • EZ/EC = Enterprise Zone/Empowerment Community
  • HCFA = Health Care Financing Administration
  • JTPA = Job Training Partnership Act
  • SAPT Block Grant = Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant
  • SSA = Single State Agency (i.e., the primary State agency responsible for publicly funded substance abuse treatment services)
  • TANF = Temporary Assistance to Needy Families
  • USDA = United States Department of Agriculture
  • VR = Vocational Rehabilitation

Appendix G -- Sample Individualized Written Rehabilitation Program

This Appendix is a 27Kbyte PDF file.

Appendix H -- Resource Panel

Candace Baker

Clinical Affairs Manager

National Association of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counselors

Arlington, Virginia

Elena Carr

Substance Abuse Program Coordinator

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy

Department of Labor

Washington, D.C.

Janie Dargan, M.S.N.

Senior Policy Analyst

Office of National Drug Control Policy/ E.O.P.

Washington, D.C.

Marsha Dubose

Supervisory Vocational Rehabilitation Specialist

District Government

Department of Human Services

Rehabilitation Services Administration

Washington, D.C.

Laura Feig, M.P.P.

Social Science Analyst

Division of Children and Youth Policy

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Department of Health and Human Services

Washington, D.C.

Sharon L. Gottoui, M.A., L.P.C., C.S.A.C.

Second Genesis, Inc.

Bethesda, Maryland

Jeff A. Hoffman, Ph.D.


Danya International, Inc.

Silver Spring, Maryland

Randy T. Hoover, C.A.S., C.A.C.

Vocational Counselor

Second Genesis, Inc.

Crownsville, Maryland

Janice Jordan

Substance Abuse Consultant

Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services

Richmond, Virginia

Cathy Keiter, M.A.

Media, Pennsylvania

Dennis Moore, Ed.D.


Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Drugs and Disability

Wright State University

Dayton, Ohio

Thomas O'Connell

Division of Self-Sufficiency

Administration on Children and Families

Washington, D.C.

Gwen Rubinstein, M.P.H.

Deputy Director of National Policy

Legal Action Center

Washington, D.C.

Daniel Simpson

HIV/AIDS Coordinator/Alcohol

Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Program Branch

Indian Health Service

Rockville, Maryland

Barbara J. Spoor, M.P.A.

Project Director

American Public Welfare Association

Washington, D.C.

Dora Teimouri, M.Ed.

Rehabilitation Program Specialist

Rehabilitation Services Administration

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services

U.S. Department of Education

Washington, D.C.

Appendix I -- Field Reviewers

William J. Allen

Deputy Director

Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services

Department of Community Health

Lansing, Michigan

Richard C. Baron, M.A.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Adrienne Bitoy-Jackson

Grants Developer

Grants Administration

Chicago Housing Authority

Chicago, Illinois

Karen Busha, Ed.M.

Treatment Director

Lexington County Residential and Outpatient

Lexington Richland Alcohol and Drug Abuse Council

West Columbia, South Carolina

Susanne Caviness, Ph.D., C.A.P.T., U.S.P.H.S.

Quality Improvement Advisor

Office of Pharmacological and Alternative Therapies

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Rockville, Maryland

Barbara Cimaglio


Office of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Programs

Oregon Department of Human Resources

Salem, Oregon

Michael Couty, M.S.


Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Missouri Department of Mental Health

Jefferson City, Missouri

John Darin


The National Association on Drug Abuse Problems, Inc.

New York, New York

Lynn F. Duby, M.S.W.


Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation & Substance Abuse Services

Maine Office of Substance Abuse

Augusta, Maine

Laura Faulconer, M.S.W., M.P.A.

Director, Continuity of Care

Commonwealth of Virginia

Northern Virginia Mental Health Institute

Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse

Falls Church, Virginia

Judy Fried, M.A.

Executive Director

Women and Children's Program

Northern Illinois Council on Alcoholism and Substance Abuse

Round Lake, Illinois

Nick Gantes, M.P.A.


James R. Thompson Center

Illinois Department of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse

Chicago, Illinois

Matthew Gissen


The Village

Miami, Florida

Sharon L. Gottoui, M.A., L.P.C., C.S.A.C.

Second Genesis

Bethesda, Maryland

James Herrera, M.A., L.P.C.C.

Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions

University of New Mexico

Albuquerque, New Mexico

James Robert Holden, M.A.

Program Director

Partners in Drug Abuse Rehabilitation Counseling

Washington, D.C.

Brandon Hunt, Ph.D., N.C.C., C.R.C.

Assistant Professor

Counselor Education, Counseling Psychology, and Rehabilitation Services

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, Pennsylvania

Linda S. Janes, C.C.D.C. III

Recovery Services Administrator

Division of Parole and Community Services

Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Corrections

Columbus, Ohio

Linda Kaplan

Executive Director

National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors

Arlington, Virginia

Cathy Keiter, M.A.

Media, Pennsylvania

Michael W. Kirby, Jr., Ph.D.

Chief Executive Officer

Arapahoe House, Inc.

Thornton, Colorado

Russell P. MacPherson, Ph.D., C.A.P., C.A.P.P., C.C.P., D.A.C., D.V.C.


RPM Addiction Prevention Training

Deland, Florida

Marcello Maviglia, M.D.

Albuquerque, New Mexico

Dennis Moore, Ed.D.


Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Drugs and Disability

Wright State University

Dayton, Ohio

Ethel Mull

Vice President

Treatment Alternatives for Special Clients

Chicago, Illinois

Fanny G. Nicholson, C.C.S.W., A.C.S.W., N.C.A.C.I., C.S.A.E.

Alcohol and Drug Specialist

Oconaluftee Job Corps

Cherokee, North Carolina

Larry D. Raper, M.B.A., M.A., C.A.D.C.


Office of Program Compliance and Outcomes Monitoring

Bureau of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention

Arkansas Department of Health

Little Rock, Arkansas

Steve D. Redfield

Executive Director

Strive/Chicago Employment Service

Chicago, Illinois

Gwen Rubinstein, M.P.H.

Deputy Director of National Policy

Legal Action Center

Washington, D.C.

Nancy Siegrist, M.P.A.

Executive Director

Lansing Regional Agency

National Council on Alcoholism

Lansing, Michigan

Tom W. Smith

Health Program Manager

Office of Consumer Affairs

Behavioral Health Services Division

New Mexico Department of Health

Santa Fe, New Mexico

Ruth Delores Smith, C.S.W., M.A., C.A.S.A.C.

Director of Residential Services and Training

VIP Community Services

Bronx, New York

Richard T. Suchinsky, M.D.

Associate Director for Addictive Disorders and Psychiatric Rehabilitation

Mental Health and Behavioral Sciences Services

Department of Veterans Affairs

Washington, D.C.

Sushma Taylor, Ph.D.

Executive Director

Center Point, Inc.

San Rafael, California

Anthony Tusler

Santa Rosa, California

Eileen Wolkstein, Ph.D.

Research Scientist

School of Education

Department of Health Studies

Rehabilitation Counseling Program

New York University

New York, New York

Stephen A. Young


Planning and Development

First Inc.

Winston Salem, North Carolina

Dennis Zimmerman

New York State Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services

Albany, New York

Janet Zwick


Division of Substance Abuse and Health Promotion

Iowa Department of Public Health

Des Moines, Iowa

Figure 1-1: Challenges to Employment

Figure 1-1
Challenges to Employment

Client Obstacles


  • Substance use (substances used, history and pattern of use, relapse, associated problems)
  • Mental or physical disabilities (psychiatric comorbidity, physical or medical condition, neuropsychiatric disability, cognitive disabilities, HIV/AIDS)
  • Deficits in education and skills (education level, learning disability, literacy, language, computer knowledge, obsolete or low-level job skills, little or no work experience)
  • At-risk history (developmental, familial employment, employment, criminal, loss of parental rights)
  • Unrealistic expectations and attitudes (toward job demands, work habits, authority, capability for self-sufficiency, personal competencies, change, failure, impulse control, delayed gratification)
  • Inadequate income (for clothing, food, transportation, housing, child care, job-related equipment)
  • Work disincentives (from welfare-based income, illicit activities, relatives)
  • Discontinuation of health benefits
  • Crisis lifestyle (illnesses, children's illnesses, violent community, numerous family tragedies and deaths, children's school problems)
  • Learned helplessness or dependence taught to clients over the years
  • "First things first" approach where the client is conflicted about seeking employment and instead encouraged to focus exclusively on sobriety (often this approach is used by 12-Step programs)


  • Negative attitudes toward vocational rehabilitation
  • Negative attitudes toward disability


  • History of violence or abuse (e.g., domestic, physical, sexual, and psychological abuse; criminal activity)
  • Competing family responsibilities (e.g., child or elder care, disabled family members or relatives)
  • Inadequate social supports (e.g., spousal, familial, peer group, community, institutional)
  • Lack of positive modeling (e.g., peer group, familial/parental, societal)

Substance Abuse Treatment Program-Level Obstacles


  • No onsite VR counselor
  • No staff knowledge about or use of available employment and vocational services
  • No staff training in delivery of vocational services
  • Lack of understanding about vocational issues

Client--Counselor Interactions

  • Poor therapeutic relationship
  • Discrepant expectations with respect to vocational goals and needed services
  • Agency and counselor attitude about addressing substance abuse disorder before any other issues (e.g., vocational services)


  • Inadequate funding for vocational services for clients, staffing, or staff training
  • Inadequate networking with other service providers
  • Fiscal disincentives brought about by clients' loss of Medicaid or other public assistance as a source of payment for treatment services


  • Lack of commitment to vocational services
  • Vocational services not integrated into substance abuse treatment
  • Inflexible treatment schedules (e.g., not open on weekends or after 5 p.m. during the week)
  • Lack of commitment to individualized planning and treatment

Structural Barriers

Employers and Businesses

  • Biases against hiring persons in substance abuse treatment, with criminal records, on welfare, of particular gender, with disabilities (coexisting), of a certain ethnicity, or with co-occurring mental disorders
  • Unfavorable work environment (see biases above)
  • Inadequate on-the-job-training
  • Inadequate pay scales, promotion policies, or benefit packages
  • Lack of supportive services and information
  • State-required caregiver background checks and inability to work in various jobs because of background regardless of employer's willingness to hire

Welfare to Work

  • Unrealistic expectation regarding client's ability to work now without adequate time to resolve basic problems

Local Labor Market

  • Few entry-level jobs at sufficient pay that offer the prospect of advancement and benefits
  • Difficulties in matching clients to available jobs
  • Lack of, or exclusion from, union membership
  • Jobs located too far away for reasonable transportation time

Local Services

  • Limited personal or public transportation
  • Insufficient safe, affordable housing
  • Inadequate regional or local resources (e.g., day care, schools, accessible medical care, libraries)

Local Employment Programs and Vocational Services

  • Inadequate or out-of-date programs for current labor market needs
  • Unsuitable programs and services (e.g., for clients in substance abuse treatment, women)
  • Insufficient funding for long-term training
  • No focus on job retention problems
  • Premature job placement when client is not ready
  • Waiting lists or other delays in obtaining services
  • Insufficient attention to short-term training to accommodate welfare reform mandates
  • Insufficient coordination between service systems to identify mutual goals, needed collaborative approaches, and means to eliminate structural programmatic behaviors


  • Work is not a goal for managed care or other insurance and therefore is not funded

Sources: French et al., 1992; Platt, 1995; Wolkstein and Spiller, 1998; Woolis, 1998.

Figure 1-2: Strategies for Promoting Employment

Figure 1-2
Strategies for Promoting Employment

Job Placement Strategies

  • Job search assistance, either in a group setting or through one-on-one counseling or coaching, sometimes through "job clubs" with workshops, access to phone banks, and peer support.
  • Self-directed job search, where individuals search and apply for jobs on their own. Sometimes individuals must submit a log of their job contacts.
  • Job development and placement, where program staff members identify or develop job openings for participants. Counselors refer individuals to openings, often using computerized job banks. In more intensive models, staff members develop relationships with specific firms, gaining knowledge of potential job openings or commitments to hire through the program.

Job Training Strategies

  • Classroom occupational training, by training or educational institutions such as community colleges or vocational schools, community-based organizations, or nonprofit or for-profit training centers. Training may include formal postsecondary programs leading to certification or licensing in a particular occupation.
  • On-the-job training with public or private sector employers, who usually receive a subsidy to cover a portion of the wages paid during the training period. The employer subsidy may be drawn from welfare or food stamp payments that otherwise would have been paid to the individual recipient.
  • Use of a mentor, who provides support to the client within the work setting. A mentor could be someone who went through substance abuse treatment and is now working.

Broad Education Strategies

  • Remedial education, such as preparation for the general equivalency diploma (GED), basic skills instruction in reading and mathematics, or English-language classes for persons whose primary language is not English, and computer-skills building.
  • Postsecondary degree programs (e.g., associate's or bachelor's degree), generally financed by grants, Federal loans, or scholarships.

Mixed Strategies

  • Vocational training plus basic skills, either in the workplace or in instructional centers/classes.
  • Supported work experience, with pre-employment preparation, assignment to public jobs, and gradually increasing hours and work responsibility combined with ongoing counseling, education, and peer support.

Source: Nightingale and Holcomb, 1997.

Figure 2-1: Vocational Services Provided to a Residential Treatment Facility

Figure 2-1
Vocational Services Provided to a Residential Treatment Facility

The Virginia Department of Rehabilitative Services provides a full-time VR counselor (perceived by residents as a staff member) to support the integration of vocational strategies into residential therapeutic communities. The counselor works closely with the treatment provider, who collaborates in the development of a VR plan. Clients are referred to the counselor for planning and assessment, which include the administration of aptitude tests that often uncover learning disabilities. An array of services, listed below, is then provided based on the client's individual needs.

  • Vocational evaluation, including aptitude, skill level, and interest testing
  • Research on jobs of interest to clients and help in arranging informational interviews, along with career counseling
  • Referral to training and education or apprenticeship programs
  • A week-long program in job-seeking skills, including role-playing and videotaped interviews
  • An informal job club with ongoing group sessions to support people looking for work; participants keep a log of their accomplishments and discuss the problems related to reentering the workforce
  • Employer outreach and marketing to raise awareness of the availability of this pool of prospective employees
  • Job placement services that allow for funding of on-the-job training experiences and tax credits for employers
  • Assistance in purchasing work clothes or tools required for entry into a job
  • After employment, a "reentry support" group that meets at night during a work adjustment period

Figure 2-2: Vocational Information From Initial Screen

Figure 2-2
Vocational Information From Initial Screen

Educational History Write a brief description of the client's educational history in order to evaluate current academic functioning and potential to engage in training that could range from remedial to advanced. The history should include the following information:

  • Highest school grade completed, and when
  • Client attitude toward education and possible future training (verbal report may differ from behavior with some clients)
  • Favorite subjects, and why
  • Extracurricular activities
  • Potential for future education and/or training

Standardized achievement tests of math, reading, and general learning ability are often used to augment interview questions. The client's educational history can also be used to indicate vocation-related interests and values.

Vocational History Write a brief description of the client's work history in order to estimate current and potential vocational functioning. Ask questions addressing the following:

  • Types of occupations in which the client has worked
  • Chronology of jobs within the last 15 years, including job title, name of employer, length of employment at each job, and primary job duties
  • Reasons for leaving each job
  • Client-identified work skills and any certifications or licenses held
  • Client's perception of relationships with supervisors and coworkers
  • Favorite and least favorite jobs, and why
  • Work-related ambitions and goals

Figure 2-3: Assessment Tools

Figure 2-3
Assessment Tools

Screening Vocational Interests

Measures/Approaches (not all-inclusive)

Categories of interests

  • Geist Picture Interest Inventory
  • Kuder Occupational Interest Survey
  • Reading-Free Vocational Interest Inventory
  • The Self-Directed Search
  • Strong Interest Inventory
  • Vocational Preference Inventory Interest Checklist
  • Wide Range Interest Opinion Test

Vocational functioning

  • Addiction Severity Index
  • Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventoryú
  • Career Thoughts Inventoryú
  • My Vocational Situation
  • Wonderlic Basic Skills Test
  • Work Potential Profile

Functioning in particular areas related to employability

  • Addiction Severity Index
  • Employability evaluation
  • Employability plan
  • Interview information
  • Placement readiness checklist
  • Previous work experience
  • Readiness planning checklist

Emotional functioning

  • Interview information
  • Tennessee Self-Concept Scale
  • The Psychological Screening Inventory
  • Verified work history

Intellectual and aptitude functioning

  • Addiction Severity Index
  • Adult Basic Learning Examination (ABLE)
  • Educational experience and records
  • General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB)
  • Microcomputer Evaluation, Screening, and Assessment (MESA)
  • Minnesota Clerical Test
  • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
  • Revised Beta Examination
  • Slosson Intelligence Test
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)
  • Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)

Source: Adapted from Power, 1991.


Figure 2-4: Prevocational Counseling Activities

Figure 2-4
Prevocational Counseling Activities

Psychosocial-spiritual development

  • Keep a diary of daily activities.
  • Participate in role-playing exercises (e.g., for developing interpersonal communication skills, expressing needs and wants without appearing demanding).
  • Complete values clarification, skills assessment, and personal traits exercises.

Career exploration

  • Generate an autobiography on vocational and educational experiences.
  • Visit community resources, including libraries, stores, businesses.
  • Read newspapers for a specific purpose (e.g., employment trends, want ads).
  • Watch educational and interactive programs to stimulate discussion and practice new behavior.

Structured activity

  • Take a battery of vocational tests.
  • Pursue and perform volunteer assignments.
  • Take continuing education courses to determine and validate interests.
  • Write a résumé.

Source: Adapted from Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Drugs and Disability, 1996.

Figure 2-5: Job Search Resources: America's Job Bank on the Internet

Figure 2-5
Job Search Resources: America's Job Bank on the Internet

America's Job Bank ( is a partnership between the DOL and State-operated employment services. This computerized network links State employment service offices to provide jobseekers with the largest pool of active job opportunities available anywhere, plus nationwide exposure for their résumés. For employers it provides rapid, national exposure for job openings and an easily accessed pool of candidates. The AJB Web site is available on computer systems in public libraries, colleges and universities, high schools, shopping malls, and other public places.

Every day, AJB receives new job listings from the States, and the Internet database is updated each night. On average, more than 5,000 new jobs are received daily from the States. Also, thousands of employers enter their jobs directly into the system in real time. Typically, more than 3,000 new jobs are received directly from employers daily.

In addition to the AJB, there are three other sections to explore on this Web site:

  • America's Talent Bank ( This is a nationwide electronic résumé system. Jobseekers enter résumés into this national network, which is then searched by employers for workers who meet their needs.
  • America's Career InfoNet ( This is a comprehensive source of occupational and economic information. It contains information about general outlook, wages, trends, State profiles, and a resource library.
  • America's Learning eXchange ( This is an online source for training and education resources. Jobseekers can find a myriad of training opportunities, including traditional classroom-based training, leading-edge distance learning, Web-based instruction, and multimedia instructional materials (e.g., CD-ROM, video).

Figure 2-6: Vocational Opportunities of Cherokee, Inc.: Rehabilitation Facility Providing Primarily Onsite Services

Figure 2-6
Vocational Opportunities of Cherokee, Inc.:
Rehabilitation Facility Providing Primarily Onsite Services

Vocational Opportunities of Cherokee, Inc., offers both supported and sheltered employment for Native Americans with severe disabilities. Clients are referred to the program by social welfare programs; alcohol and drug treatment providers; medical treatment providers; the Women, Infants, and Children Program; and other sources.

Following an assessment, the individual reviews job descriptions and chooses a field of work. Detailed evaluations of the individual's capabilities, if needed, can take up to 18 months. All clients receive a basic training program that includes commonly needed skills, such as conflict resolution and grooming. The client then receives appropriate training in the chosen field and to enhance his functional capabilities. He begins with jobs requiring lower dexterity and skill and moves up to more complex jobs as capabilities increase.

The program includes the following services:

  • Evaluation
  • Counseling and guidance
  • Physical and mental restoration
  • Culturally appropriate social activities for the client and her family
  • Vocational and other training services
  • Transportation
  • Services to the family members of the client
  • Interpreter and note-taking services for the deaf
  • Readers, rehabilitation teachers, and note-taking for the blind
  • Telecommunication, sensory, and other technological devices
  • Recruitment and training services for public service employment
  • Placement and suitable employment
  • Postemployment services to enable the client to maintain, regain, or advance in employment
  • Occupational licenses, tools, equipment, initial stocks, and supplies
  • Rehabilitation engineering services; other goods and services

The program employs three counselors, a job coach, and three trainer/managers. It is funded by the State VR agency and by tribal funds. The industrial training floor is operated through contracts with private employers. Some clients also perform contract work, such as grounds care for Federal buildings.

Figure 2-7: The Michigan Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Referral and Monitoring Agency: A Case Management Model

Figure 2-7
The Michigan Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Referral and Monitoring Agency:
A Case Management Model

The Michigan Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Referral and Monitoring Agency (DAARMA) operated under Michigan Rehabilitation Services of the Michigan Jobs Commission until it was eliminated by changes in Social Security and Medicaid. The program served clients receiving Supplemental Security Income who had substance use disorders in addition to other disabilities. Its purpose was to help these clients return to the workforce by ensuring that they had the tools necessary to achieve full rehabilitation and self-sufficiency. This program description is retained because it has many transferable elements.

The program was a three-way partnership between the alcohol and drug counselor, DAARMA, and the vocational rehabilitation services agency. The partners were cross-trained: the State treatment provider agency gave a 6-week intensive training program on substance use disorders for all staff and in turn received training on Medicare rules and on the counseling rehabilitation model. Written agreements documented the partnership. Collaborating agencies made joint decisions on the appropriate timing for the introduction of vocational rehabilitation services. Services generally were introduced as soon as the clients were "clean" and their condition stabilized. The time required for the referral and monitoring process in the Michigan program ranged from 2 to 5 years. The program operated on several principles:

  • Careful, comprehensive recovery plans focusing on full rehabilitation and a return to the workforce are essential if the program is to be successful and cost-effective.
  • The effectiveness of a recovery plan is only as good as the quality of partnership between the beneficiary's therapist and the referral and monitoring agency counselor.
  • For the treatment plan to be successful, the beneficiary must be an active partner in the accomplishment of his own recovery and must be held accountable for his actions.

The case management program included the following elements:

  • A preliminary intake to determine clients' needs. Based on the intake results, some clients were referred to a residential program for detoxification.
  • Counseling to ensure that clients understood the program's benefits and the sanctions that could be imposed for noncompliance.
  • Periodic progress reports involving the clinician and, for corrections clients, the corrections officer.
  • Individualized referral to, and coordination of, all services needed to sustain the client's full recovery and rehabilitation (i.e., substance use, physical and/or mental health treatment, habilitation and rehabilitation services, other supportive social services).
  • Tools to monitor compliance, including drug testing.

Compliance issues included the following:

  • A distinction between noncompliance and relapse. A client who relapsed might continue to receive benefits while attempting to return to treatment, whereas a client who missed appointments regularly might have her cash benefits temporarily suspended. The ability to suspend benefits gave the program a high success rate.
  • Loss of 1 month's benefits the first time a client was noncompliant, 2 months of checks for the second noncompliance, and 3 months of checks for the third noncompliance (which seldom occurred).
  • During the first year of the program, 53 percent of the participants were noncompliant; however, 72 percent of them returned within 30 days after losing their first checks.

Social Security funded the case management and monitoring function, Michigan Jobs Commission Rehabilitation Services funded the cost of rehabilitation services, and Medicaid funded treatment services. The DAARMA's case management cost per case was $350 per year. One month's benefit check for one individual without dependents was $457. Thus, successful rehabilitation saved the General Fund a minimum of $5,500 per year, per case, in cash benefits. In cases of noncompliance, 1 month's benefit suspension ($457) saved the cost of case management of a case for an entire year. The average cost of rehabilitation services for substance use disorder clients averaged about $1,200 per case.

Figure 2-8: Combating Alcohol and Drugs Through Rehabilitation and Education (CADRE)

Figure 2-8
Combating Alcohol and Drugs Through Rehabilitation and Education (CADRE)

Limited Case Management/Rehabilitation Support for a Public Housing Community

Fourteen CADRE centers provide prevention and intervention services, operating in 12 Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) developments. Each conducts intake assessment and makes referrals for substance abuse treatment for the community and helps residents to move toward self-sufficiency. As part of these services, residents may receive vocational services on a voluntary basis. Participants are self-referred as a result of flyers distributed door to door or are referred by various social service agencies that work with CHA residents. Each center has a director, one case manager (who is a State-certified alcohol and drug counselor), two prevention specialists, and a general clerk. Programs are funded by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Public Housing Drug Elimination Program through a grant to CHA's in-house employment and training program

The CADRE centers make available the following vocational services:

  • Job readiness programs that teach participants how to write a résumé, how to look for a job, how to dress for a job, and similar skills
  • Job fairs where local businesses take applications and résumés
  • Recovery support groups (not geared specifically to employment)
  • Access to job-hunting resources such as a telephone, fax machine, computers, and the Internet
  • Job training provided through outside consultants

Figure 2-9: The Texas Workforce Commission: Project RIO (Re-Integration of Offenders)

Figure 2-9
The Texas Workforce Commission: Project RIO (Re-Integration of Offenders)

Project RIO is administered by the Texas Workforce Commission in collaboration with the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ), the Windham School District, and the Texas Youth Commission (TYC). One goal of the project is to link education, training, and employment during incarceration with employment, training, and education after release from prison. Another goal is to reduce the rearrest rate through employment.

Program participants receive services both pre- and postrelease from prison. An individualized treatment plan is developed for each offender to identify a career path and to guide placement decisions. Before release, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to assess the needs of the offender and to assist in the selection and placement in Windham, college, TDCJ, and TYC programs. The evaluation process is a multistep process that includes information gathering, goal setting, program placement, and offender assessment.

Project RIO staff members encourage participants to take advantage of the education and vocational services and assist offenders in obtaining the documents necessary for employment. Staff also provides placement services to give offenders practical work experience in their areas of training.

After release, program participants receive individualized services, including job preparation and job search assistance. Participants attend job search workshops that focus on basic skills, such as completing a job application, preparing a résumé, and building interview skills through mock job interviews. The most important goal of the Project RIO program is for ex-offenders to secure employment as soon as possible after their release.

Project RIO also involves employers in the community. Program staff ensures that potential employers are aware of the incentives for hiring ex-offenders. The staff certifies prospective employees for the Work Opportunity Tax Credit program, which provides a tax incentive to employers for hiring economically disadvantaged ex-offenders.

Figure 2-10: Basic Materials for a Vocational Reference Library

Figure 2-10
Basic Materials for a Vocational Reference Library

VR counselors use a variety of resources to help clients find jobs. The following is a list of basic materials that a counselor should have available. Although not all programs can afford an Internet hookup to access online employment-related information, they should identify locations where clients can obtain Internet access, such as schools and public libraries.

DOL Documents

  • Guide for Occupational Exploration
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles
  • Occupational Outlook Handbook

Local Resources

  • Local newspaper classified ads
  • Local telephone directories
  • Catalog of employer profiles
  • Contact information (address, phone number of personnel department) of
    • The largest employers in the area
    • The employers who hire the largest number of local workers
    • The fastest growing local employers
    • Employee Assistance Programs
  • Mentor lists by employer
  • Public transportation routes and schedules
  • Course catalogs describing majors and programs in local technical schools, community colleges, and universities

Employment-Related Publications

  • College Placement Annual
  • National Business Employment Weekly
  • The Professional and Trade Association Job Finder
  • The National Job Market
  • The National and Regional Job Bank
  • Career Guide to Professional Associations
  • What Color is Your Parachute: A Practical Guide for Job-Hunters & Career-Changers

Other Resources

  • Materials from the local Chamber of Commerce
  • Materials from the local Job Service
  • Access to Web sites such as America's Job Bank (
  • State economic development Web sites for access to State and national job bank databases

Figure 3-1: Early-Stage Vocational Issues and Approaches

Figure 3-1
Early-Stage Vocational Issues and Approaches

Psychosocial--Spiritual Values

  • Explore alternatives to a substance-using lifestyle and personal value system.
  • Explore goals, interests, abilities, strengths, weaknesses, and personal values.
  • Learn to consider personal and spiritual needs.
  • Identify and acknowledge specific talents.
  • Develop the concepts of lifestyle change and psychosocial development.
  • Have a stable home and intact family; receive regular paychecks.
  • Examine the relationship of substance abuse to other life issues.
  • Consider ways to achieve positive parenting, good health, and economic independence from welfare and other support systems.
  • Revise one's self-concept in relation to independent functioning at home, school, and work.
  • Develop a positive outlook.

Activities of Daily Living

  • Learn effective socialization skills.
  • Interact without the use of drugs, with people who have not used drugs.
  • Engage in activities of daily living.
  • Begin to incorporate more healthful habits into daily living.
  • Learn appropriate dress, hygiene, walk, talk, and eye contact.
  • Learn to manage money.
  • Open and maintain bank accounts, budget, and save money.
  • Change living situation, if necessary.
  • Acquire stable housing away from people currently using drugs; reunite with spouse, parents, or children.
  • Check for any outstanding arrests on the client's record and follow up on results.
  • Clean up legal records.
  • Increase independence and responsibility.
  • Assume responsibility for managing money and solving problems.
  • Improve communication.
  • Talk to new people in new ways.
  • Learn to structure and be responsible for time.
  • Manage time, calendar, appointments.
  • Organize documents, e.g., social security card, birth certificate, military discharge papers, driver's license, diploma, training certificates.
  • Get credentials in order and ready to present.
  • Consider spirituality as a part of daily living.
  • Determine sources for spiritual expression.


  • Evaluate educational level, skills, and potential.
  • Take tests, assess deficits, plan for remediation if required.
  • Examine attitude toward school.
  • Highlight positive points.
  • Consider longer term educational and vocational goals.
  • Consider benefits of further education.

Vocational Skills

  • Evaluate vocational level.
  • Take tests; engage in a situational assessment.
  • Evaluate courses that have been taken; differentiate from courses that have been completed.
  • Reexamine prior training and what is still current.
  • Consider current vocational skills and their potential for employment.
  • Perform skills assessment.
  • Examine desires for training.
  • Consider why further training is necessary; consider in the context of specific goals.


  • Develop an understanding of the world of work.
  • Read career literature; visit work sites.
  • Adopt an identity as a worker.
  • Explore opportunities to be productive.
  • Examine work experiences for past successes and failures.
  • Develop a realistic picture of accomplishments and problems.
  • Consider potential for transferability of skills.
  • Compare skills to job demands.

Source: Adapted from Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Drugs and Disability, 1996.

Figure 3-2: Answering Questions Related to Substance Use History-A Sample Scenario

Figure 3-2
Answering Questions Related to Substance Use History-A Sample Scenario

Interviewer: I noticed that none of these jobs lasted more than 18 months, and most were only a few months.

Client: Yes, a couple of years ago I had problems at a couple of jobs. I think it was partly a question of immaturity. I just wasn't ready to take things seriously.

Interviewer: I also noticed that you haven't been working for the past year. What have you been doing?

Client: I decided I had to get my life together. I'd started using drugs and ended up getting arrested. The court gave me a choice and I took the opportunity to go into drug treatment. I learned a lot about myself and also about working. At the treatment program I volunteered to work in the office.

Interviewer: Do you have any convictions?

Client: Yes, one conviction for drug sale and possession while I was using drugs. I did have problems earlier, but at the drug treatment center I found that I really enjoyed working in the office doing data entry, filing, and answering the phones.

Source: Adapted from Englehart, 1993.

Figure 4-1: Steps for Planning an Integrated Program

Figure 4-1
Steps for Planning an Integrated Program

  • Modify mission statement to incorporate vocational goals for clients.
  • Encourage all administrative, support, and treatment staff to embrace vocational programming as an essential component for all clients--on an equivalent level of importance with abstinence.
  • Perform a needs assessment of current and past clients to identify what vocational services are most needed.
  • Use needs assessment results to identify, develop, and deliver vocational services that make the most sense for the agency, clients, and community.
  • Hire a vocational specialist or retool/upgrade existing staff to handle vocational counseling responsibilities.
  • Develop vocational counseling competencies in all treatment staff.
  • Develop and provide necessary vocational support materials (e.g., employment library, computer with Internet access, training materials for job-seeking skills).
  • Integrate vocational outcomes into accountability studies when following up with former clients.

Figure 4-2: Job Clubs

Figure 4-2
Job Clubs

A job club can be established in most treatment settings--i.e., high-, medium-, or low-structure programs. However, outpatient programs may find them particularly useful for helping clients obtain jobs with a low investment of staff time. Some job clubs are run by a staff person, but most are organized and operated by clients with a staff person in the role of a consultant.

The job club is a behavioral approach to job finding that is based on research showing that the difficulties faced by most job seekers often involve problems of learning, motivation, and the maintenance of behavior--problems for which the behavioral approach should be most relevant (Azrin and Besalel, 1982). This multistep approach, in which job seeking is regarded as full-time employment, provides a systematic method for conducting a job search. The group context provides important social support to members engaged in the stressful process of finding a job.

To establish a job club, the substance abuse treatment program provides daily newspapers and other current sources of job information and office equipment (e.g., copy machine, typewriter, computer) and supplies. A phone line or lines reserved for job club members and an answering machine help them contact potential employers and allow them to receive messages. The program also can obtain a post office box for members' mail from prospective employers. It is important to remember that some clients may not have a permanent address or phone number and that the person who answers the phone at their home may give a poor impression to the employer or may fail to take messages reliably. Job club members thus use the facility as a home base for conducting their search. Job clubs tend to become part of the treatment milieu and to integrate themselves into programs. There is a natural confluence of substance use disorder and vocational issues in these groups.

The Internet has now become a good resource for job hunting. The cost of a computer and modem may no longer be prohibitive for most programs and may be a good investment if it improves clients' vocational outcomes. In addition, the computer skills that clients gain in their job search may help them on the job.

Figure 4-3: Focus on Client Outcomes: The Future for Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

Figure 4-3
Focus on Client Outcomes:
The Future for Substance Abuse Treatment Providers

CSAT is developing client outcome evaluations that will be disseminated to State and local governments and treatment providers. With these tools, treatment programs can measure their effectiveness and make comparisons on a regional and nationwide basis ( A substantial initiative by CSAT, the two Treatment Outcome Performance Pilots (TOPPS I and II), which involve 14 and 19 States, respectively, is developing and pilot testing instruments and measures of substance abuse treatment outcomes. These measures will examine changes in several domains including employment, substance use, health status, psychological function, legal status, and family and social relationships. These domains represent consensus among States on the areas where substance abuse treatment is expected to result in changes. Treatment providers will need to address these domains via on- or offsite programming or referrals in order to remain competitive for Federal funding for substance abuse treatment programs.

Figure 5-1: Data-Matching Software

Figure 5-1
Data-Matching Software

The use of data-matching tools such as unique client identifiers (e.g., the client's first and last name and middle initial and the last four digits of the client's Social Security number) can help agencies determine overlapping client caseloads. The software ArcView (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100) can aid in assessing the effectiveness of collaborative relationships among service providers by providing data on the numbers of clients being served by multiple agencies. Some of the locations in which data matching has been implemented include Chicago, San Diego, Los Angeles, and Alameda County, California. This software compares data from specific client populations with those from other populations. The user can then determine the proportions of clients receiving substance abuse treatment services who are counted in the caseloads of other agencies. This makes it possible to determine, for example, what percentage of clients who are receiving substance abuse treatment have children in remedial education. By identifying areas of overlap such as this, data-matching tools can influence decisions about the makeup of a multidisciplinary team, the coincidental needs of clients, and what types of collaborative relationships with other agencies are most likely to benefit a program's client population.

Figure 5-2: Steps for Establishing an Authentically Connected Network

Figure 5-2
Steps for Establishing an Authentically Connected Network

The Consensus Panel developed the concept of authentically connected networks, which include the following steps to their establishment:

  1. Determine the services that are available in the local area by developing an updated inventory and by resource mapping.
  2. Hold discussions with agencies identified as potential collaborators. Discussions can include topics such as the following:
    • Emphasis on the benefits of collaboration
    • Cross-training of staff
    • How the other agency conducts business (e.g., "turf" issues)
  3. Develop working agreements or memorandums of understanding between collaborators to organize information sharing and communicate respective roles.
  4. Determine the agency's criteria for accepting clients (e.g., what types of clients and levels of severity do they accept?).
  5. If warranted, establish a partnership with the agency, as well as agreements regarding the flow of information and feedback between the agencies to ensure provider accountability.

Figure 5-3: Characteristics of Authentically Connected Referral Networks

Figure 5-3
Characteristics of Authentically Connected Referral Networks

  • Multiple agencies work as equal partners with each other and with the client; referring agencies make the initial contact to the referral source and keep abreast of client progress.
  • Clients and agencies have mutual responsibility and trust; interagency accountability and data sharing exists.
  • Communication mechanisms for timely information dissemination are accessible to all agencies and stakeholders.
  • The full range of stakeholders is identified, including local community services, and feedback is elicited from all of them.
  • Relationships among providers are collaborative and flexible in the assumption of multiple job tasks related to client needs.
  • The network is client-, vision-, and mission-driven.
  • Change and growth of the referring organization are demonstrated as a result of the referral process; dynamic network.
  • The network is open to new paradigms, approaches, use of technology on behalf of clients (e.g., electronic portfolios), and individualization of client treatment plans and services.
  • There is ongoing provider training and involvement in continuing education and staff development.
  • Shared assessment of network effectiveness is ongoing.
  • Cross-training of staff among collaborating agencies is ongoing.
  • Accountability is results- and progress-based, with interagency negotiation of shared outcomes.
  • The referral process is concurrent.

Figure 6-1: Agency Self-Assessment Categories

Figure 6-1
Agency Self-Assessment Categories


Agency Mission

"Agency Fit"


  • Demographics
  • Culture
  • Family
  • Trends
  • Focus groups
  • Client feedback
  • Inclusion of clients in planning
  • Disability issues
  • Capacity
  • Staffing
  • Cultural competence
  • Readiness for collaboration
  • Accountability
  • Resources
  • Technological capability
  • Desired outcome
  • Client centeredness
  • Service needs
  • Analyze agency's service delivery profile versus what clients need
  • Choose to provide services in-house or by referral
  • Identify community resources and partners
  • Build relationships
  • Changes in organizational structure
  • Specialization and market segmentation
  • Sustainable employment
  • Better client outcomes
  • Improved community conditions
  • Multiple access points

Figure 7-1: Americans With Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act Protections

Figure 7-1
Americans With Disabilities Act and Rehabilitation Act Protections


Illegal drugs


Current abuse


Current abuse*


Educational or Training Program

Individuals qualified for services are protected


Protection limited to health and rehabilitation services

Individuals qualified for services are protected


Individuals are not protected if

  • Their alcohol abuse is so severe that they no longer meet the eligibility requirements.
  • They pose a significant risk to health or safety of others that cannot be eliminated by service modification or auxiliary aids/services.

No Exceptions

Substance abuse treatment programs may expel clients who continue to use illegal drugs while attending the program.

Individuals are not protected if they pose a direct threat to the health or safety of others. Service providers may administer drug tests to ensure that an individual with a history of illegal drug use is no longer using illegal drugs.


Individuals qualified for the job are protected if they can perform job duties without posing a threat to health, safety, or property.


No Protection

Individuals qualified for the job are protected if they

  • Participate in a supervised rehabilitation program and are no longer using illegal drugs
  • Have successfully completed treatment and are no longer using illegal drugs


See box above.

No Exceptions

Not Applicable

Employer may administer drug testing to ensure that an individual with a history of illegal drug use is no longer using.

*Current abuse is defined as the illegal use of drugs that occurred recently enough to conclude that it is still a problem.

Figure 7-2: Services Provided Under the Workforce Investment Act of 1996

Figure 7-2
Services Provided Under the Workforce Investment Act of 1996

Core Services include

  • Assessment of individuals' skill levels, aptitudes, abilities, and supportive service needs
  • Job search and placement assistance and, where appropriate, career counseling
  • Information about current job vacancies, the skills those jobs call for, and the kinds of jobs that are generally available in the community, including pay levels and skill requirements
  • Information about training available through the one-stop delivery system
  • Information about and referral to supportive services, including child care and transportation
  • Assistance with establishing eligibility for welfare-to-work activities and financial aid programs for training and education not funded by the Act
  • Followup services (including counseling about the workplace) for those placed in unsubsidized employment (?134(d)(2) of P.L. 105-220)

Intensive Services include

  • Comprehensive and specialized assessments of the skill levels and service needs of individuals, including diagnostic testing and in-depth interviewing and evaluation to identify employment barriers and appropriate employment goals
  • Development of individualized employment plans identifying employment goals, appropriate achievement objectives, and appropriate combinations of services required to achieve
    employment goals
  • Counseling, including group, individual, and career
  • Case management for those seeking training services
  • Short-term prevocational services to prepare individuals for unsubsidized employment or training (including development of learning, communication, interviewing, and personal maintenance skills and instruction about punctuality and professional conduct) (?134(d)(3) of P.L. 105-220)

Training Services include

  • Occupational skills training, including training for nontraditional employment
  • On-the-job training
  • Programs that combine workplace training with related instruction
  • Training programs operated by the private sector
  • Skill upgrading and retraining
  • Entrepreneurial training
  • Job readiness training
  • Adult education and literacy activities
  • Customized training conducted by an employer or group of employers committed to employing individuals upon successful completion of the training (?134(d)(4) of P.L. 105-220)

Figure 7-3: Sample Consent Form

Figure 7-3
Sample Consent Form

Consent for the Release of Confidential Information

I, ___________________________, authorize XYZ Clinic to receive
(name of client or participant)

from/disclose to ________________________________________
(name of person and organization)

for the purpose of _______________________________________
(need for disclosure)

the following information__________________________________
(nature of the disclosure)

I understand that my records are protected under the Federal and State Confidentiality Regulations and cannot be disclosed without my written consent unless otherwise provided for in the regulations. I also understand that I may revoke this consent at any time except to the extent that action has been taken in reliance on it and that in any event this consent expires automatically on ____________________ unless otherwise specified below.
(date, condition, or event)

Other expiration specifications:

Date executed

Signature of client

Signature of parent or guardian, where required

Figure 7-4: Making a Referral to a Vocational or Training Program

Figure 7-4
Making a Referral to a Vocational or Training Program

When a substance abuse treatment program refers a client to an outside agency providing vocational services, it has three choices:

  1. A counselor can give the client the agency's name, address, and telephone number and urge her to make an appointment.
  2. A counselor can call the agency for the client and set up an appointment.
  3. The program can invite the agency to interview clients and/or provide services on its premises.

The first option requires no communication between the program and the vocational or training agency; thus, no consent is required. However, the first option does require the client to take the initiative, something she may have difficulty doing. The second option requires the client to sign a consent form permitting the counselor to call the agency and set up an appointment. The third option provides the path of least resistance for the client--she need only present herself to the outside agency on the day it schedules services at the program. By appearing to request services from the outside agency, the client is making a disclosure about her participation in treatment and no consent form is required. However, if the program sets up appointments for clients beforehand, it will need a consent form signed by the client before it can present the list of applicants for services to the vocational or training program. And, as noted above, the substance abuse treatment program must have a proper, signed consent form if it and the vocational or training agency are to communicate in the future about any client they both serve.

Figure 8-1: A Program That Addresses Women's Issues

Figure 8-1
A Program That Addresses Women's Issues

California has been a pioneering State in allowing women inmates with children under the age of 6 to live in community-based facilities. The California Department of Corrections Community Prisoner Mother Program (CPMP) is an innovative program that allows women inmates to strengthen bonds with their children and to reintegrate back into the community as productive and self-reliant individuals. As part of the community re-entry programming, women receive vocational training, job preparedness training, job placement services, referrals, and aftercare services.

Figure 8-2: Summary of Program Examples

Figure 8-2
Summary of Program Examples


Safer Foundation (Chicago)

Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO)(New York)

Project RIO (Texas)

Corrections Clearinghouse (CCH) (Washington State)

Original Objectives

To provide vocational training to inmates and to assist them in entering into unions and private industry after release

To develop work crews that could offer day labor employment in neighborhoods where offenders were living

To provide specialized employment services to ex-offenders to reduce recidivism

To coordinate job search activities for adult offenders being released from prison

Program Components

(1) 200-bed work release centers where residents attend nine 90-minute minicourses and basic reading and math skills courses using a small-group, peer-learning approach.

(2) The PACE (Programmed Activities for Correctional Education) Institute, a private school that provides basic education and life skills courses

(3) A coordinator closely supervises 200 trained volunteers who provide literacy tutoring and 65 who facilitate groups.

(1) CEO assigns ex-offenders to day labor work crews.

(2) Orientation includes four all-day job readiness classes and a 90-minute orientation to the work crews.

(1) Funds for a prison school district for life skills courses, job readiness counseling, and help assembling needed documents (e.g., birth certificates, social security cards, school transcripts)

(2) A 30-minute orientation to the RIO hotline number and the program that inmates attend on their release day

(3) Assessment, placement, and followup services

(4) Arrangements for employers to spend a day in prison talking to inmates about job opportunities

(1) Several prerelease job-related courses as well as vocational assessment

(2) At the Corrections Center for Women, CCH offers two transition-to-trades initiatives for women

(3) CCH contracts with six community agencies and one employment service center to provide job search assistance to adult and juvenile ex-offenders, including ongoing postplacement services ("Ex-O" Program)

(4) A college program for ex-offenders in recovery for substance abuse problems


(1) Improved GED scores by an average of 12.5 percent

(2) Ninety-one percent of inmates improved basic skills test scores

(3) Fifty-nine percent of those who found jobs remained on the job for at least 30 days

(1) Average placement rate of 70 percent

(2) Half of those who remained on the job for 1 month were still on the same job at 6 months

(3) In 1996, the average hourly wage of placed participants was nearly 50 percent higher than minimum wage

(1) In 1995, almost 74 percent of clients were employed at an average of 21 percent above minimum wage.

(2) At 1 year after release, 69 percent were employed, compared with 36 percent of non-RIO parolees.

(3) Of minority clients, 66 percent found employment compared with 30 percent of African Americans and 36 percent of Hispanos/Latinos who were not enrolled.

(4) Forty-eight percent of RIO clients were rearrested during the year after release, compared with 57 percent of non-RIO parolees.

(1) In 1997 and 1998, 3,082 inmates completed a CCH program.

(2) Ex-O contractors enrolled 1,312 ex-offenders, 59 percent of whom found work and 68 percent of whom were still employed after 45 days.

(3) Recidivism rate for the Ex-O clients after 1 year was 3 percent, compared with 10 percent for all releasees; after 5 years, recidivism rate was 15 percent for Ex-O clients, compared with 30 percent for all releasees.

Figure F-1: Federal Funding Sources

Figure F-1
Federal Funding Sources

Services Provided

Federal Agency

Enabling Rule

Target Populations

Eligibility Requirements for Target Populations



Alcohol abuse prevention and treatment

Substance abuse prevention and treatment

Primary prevention activities

Administrative costs


SAPT Block Grant formula (42 U.S.C. §300)

People with alcohol and substance abuse disorders

Special populations (e.g., women)

Substance abuse disorders

Pregnant/postpartum women



Funding for substance abuse treatment of Medicaid-eligible individuals. This is an optional benefit at the State's discretion.


Title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. §§1396-1396v)

Medicaid-eligible individuals




Participation in other Federal programs

Pregnancy status

State departments of health and social services


State HHS

Some substance abuse treatment services if State sets funds aside

Job training


Child care


Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (P.L. 104-193)

TANF recipients

TANF receipt

Three-quarters of formula funds go to States; one-quarter of formula funds go to local communities

DHHS and welfare contracting

Support services for "hardest to employ" TANF recipients

Transportation assistance


Welfare-to-Work grant provisions of Title IV, Part A of the Social Security Act (P.S. 105-33)

Hardest to employ TANF recipients

TANF receipt

State driven


State HHS

Basic and remedial education

Job skills assessment

On-the-job training

Job search assistance

Work experience programs


School-to-work transition programs

Transportation and relocation assistance


JTP (29 U.S.C. §201-206) (Note: JTPA is superseded by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 and will be repealed on 7/1/00.)

Unemployed adults


Disabled persons

Dislocated workers

Native Americans

Migrant and seasonal farm workers


Disadvantaged and disabled individuals

Funds are channeled to States, which oversee the planning and operation of local programs

State DOL

States receive block grants for adult employment, training for disadvantaged youths and families, and literacy

Grant establishes a system of "one-stop" centers for job seekers


Workforce Investment Act of 1998(P.L. 105-220) consolidates more than 60 Federal programs into 3 block grants to States for employment, training, and literacy

Disadvantaged adults and youth

Disadvantaged adults and youth

85% of funds go to local areas; the remainder for Statewide activities

DOL Employment and Training Division

Substance abuse prevention, intervention, referral, and treatment

Job training (to assist prevention efforts)

Security improvements in public housing complexes


Drug elimination, "back to work" efforts

Public Housing Drug Elimination Program (42 U.S.C. §11901)

Public housing residents

Public housing residence

Local public housing authorities, which contract with service providers

HUD regional office

State and local public housing authorities

Substance abuse disorder assessment and treatment

Prescription medications

Equipment and accommodation for disabled


Training and secondary education

Vocational testing and evaluation


Vocational Rehabilitation Act (29 U.S.C. §720-728a, 730, 731)

Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-220, §106)

People with disabilities

People receiving Supplemental Security Income

People with disabilities; Supplemental Security Income

VR agency designated by State

Varies by State

Foster care

Services to prevent child abuse and neglect

Substance abuse treatment (often court-ordered)

Child care


Title IV of the SSA (42 U.S.C. §1862)

Parents in child welfare system (often TANF)

TANF-eligible and those in the child welfare system

State or county child welfare services

Child welfare agency or contractors

State determines benefits package; in some States, adolescents and teen mothers are included


Title XXI of the Social Security Act (P.L. 105-33 §4901a)


Uninsured children (as defined by State)

Uninsured children; sometimes more narrowly defined

Varies by State

State HHS

Child care



Substance abuse treatment services<

Social services


Title XX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. §§1397-1397f)

State determined

State determined

State HHS or subcontractor

State HHS

Substance abuse treatment services

Tear down housing

Move drugs out, services in


"Weed and Seed"

Residents in designated neighborhoods

Law enforcement agencies with local community coalitions

Law enforcement agencies working as part of a community coalition

Executive Office for Weed and Seed of the DOJ

Substance abuse treatment at every point of entry in the criminal justice system

Substance abuse treatment services for adjudicated and non adjudicated individuals

DOJ, Office of Justice Programs, Drug Courts Program Office

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 (28 CFR §93)

Adjudicated and non adjudicated individuals

Adjudicated and non adjudicated individuals

Local criminal justice system

DOJ Office of Justice Programs


Medical and psychological services

Job training

DOE, Office of Special Education and Rehabilita-tive Services, Rehabilitation Services Admini-stration

Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. §701ff)

Individuals with physical or mental disabilities (priority given to severely disabled)

Individuals with physical or mental disabilities (priority given to severely disabled)

State VR agency

State VR agency

Help States and local communities develop flexible transportation services that connect welfare recipients and other low-income persons to jobs and other employment-related services


Transportation Equity Act of 1998 (49 U.S.C. §5309)

Welfare recipients, low-income persons

Welfare recipients, low-income persons

States, local communities


Federal Transit Administration

Loans and grants to create jobs, expand business opportunities

Support activities for job hunting, such as job training, child care, transportation


Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community Initiative (26 U.S.C. §1391)

Designated EZs or ECs

Within area with local discretion

EZ/EC local coalitions


Aid in the elimination of slums and blight

Meet other urgent community development needs

Neighborhood revitalization

Economic development

Improvement of community facilities and public services


Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. §5301)

Low- and moderate-income people

Low- and moderate-income people

Entitled communities (metropolitan cities and urban counties)


Figure F-2: Federal Sources of Discretionary, Time-Limited Project Grants

Figure F-2
Federal Sources of Discretionary, Time-Limited Project Grants

Note: This list is not intended to be comprehensive.

Department of Education

National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Rehabilitation Services Administration

Department of Health and Human Services

Administration for Children and Families

Health Care Financing Administration

Health Resources and Services Administration

National Institutes of Health

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

National Institute on Drug Abuse

National Institute of Mental Health

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment

Center for Mental Health Services

Department of Housing and Urban Development

Department of Justice

Executive Office for Weed and Seed

National Institute of Justice Office of Justice Programs

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Department of Labor Department of Transportation

Federal Transit Administration





Chapter_8 - Appendix B

Appendix C – Figure F-2